Explorations in Stone-Campbell Bibliography #12: Propaganda Novels

I posted installment #11 two years ago.  It is time to resume.

A sub-set of my interest in RM bibliography is propaganda novels.  (See this earlier post about the Sommer edition of Mr. World and Miss Church-Member)  The basic thrust is that honest truth-seeker eventually finds enlightenment and along with it…if not coterminous to it…the essence of the ‘Restoration Plea’ (or comes to enlightenment on some social evil or moral problem).   Variations within this theme include temperance issues and virtue in general.  Clad in novel form, they advance Restoration principles before the reading public in a manner distinct from, but in content similar to, formal debates, doctrinal monographs or theological treatises.  Rather than employ deliberation or formal logic, they persuade by narrative, characterization, empathy.  One striking similiarity across the field is how the agonist’s name often serves as title of the book.  This personalizes the main issue…you read it and become absorbed in the character’s quest.  The agonist’s experience is a vehicle for argument: as the character finds her way, so too can the reader.  Hopefully, this personalization results in conviction and just as you have read the book, you ‘go and do likewise.’

My interest stems from my small assemblage of these novels, pictured here:

Propaganda Novels

Through a few minutes’ research I see there are many more and they have been on the bibliographers’ radar for a century.  In 1906 John Waterhaus Monser issued The Literature of the Disciples, A Study (St. Louis, Christian Publishing Company).  “Literature was never an art with us,” he said.  “The statement of the religious idea or fact was our chief concern.  To embellish it was secondary, if at all.  Many of us seem to care little for balance of sentences, perspective, climax and things like these” (pp. 24-25).  In his chapter on the classification of Disciples’ literature Monser editorialized almost constantly.  In spite of his effort at fairness (“In classifying our leading works I have decided not to discriminate.   The above caution is deemed sufficient [I omitted it since it is not entirely relevant for this post, MI].  Writers will be found representing the conservative and progressive element” p. 32) the governing criteria for his list of entries is plainly subjective:

“In the work before me, then,” he goes on, “my chief question is this: Is there ability enough in a pamphlet or book to justify its mention?  If so, I shall mention it, allowing the reader of it to decide as to its value to him.  True, I give a hint, here and there, but rarely, if ever, is it derogatory.  Our Benjmain Franklin once said, “You do not have to gnaw into the bone of a ham to learn whether or not it is tainted.” So say I, and, so, to business” (p. 33).

Monser’s classification is neither scientific nor comprehensive, but for our purposes in this little essay it is helpful.  Another quote from p. 33:

The prominent elements in religious literature are Life, Deeds, Stress, Biblical Thought, Instruction, Appeal, Narration and Meditation.  Corresponding to these are Biography, History, Controversry, Exegesis, Didactics, Sermons and Addresses, Narrative and Fiction, Devotional.  Under these heads we hope to embrace such literature as may present itself.

Here are Monser’s comments and entries under Narration, pp. 57-60:

NARRATION.  Under this head I have decided to group two classes, that of narrative and romance.  Let us begin with such writers as Durban, Willlis, Power, Bagby and Tyler.  Nor must we overlook Z. T. Sweeney’s TRAVELS ROUND THE WORLD.  He is interesting, even in a “Report on Fish.”  Here are men who delight themselves and others by furnishing us racy letters, touched by the finger of fancy, but always well ballasted with incident.  Of this sort of literatrure W. E. Garrison is quite capable, as witness his WHEELING THROUGH EUROPE.  Champ Clark has a gift for personalities–biting, but bracing.  Willett has given us the benefit of his visions abroad.  The Editor’s Easy Chair never rocks one to sleep.  F. M. Green’s articles were always read with avidity–why [58] not now?  W. F. Richardson, in his conversations, is full of good material for the pen.  John S. Sweeney must be rich in reminiscence, if, at time, somewhat imaginative.  It has occurred to me he might do well on a piece of fiction.  But could he equal D. R. Dungan or D. R. Lucas?  Just a word here as to our utility of fiction in reaching the undecided mind.  Who will ever know all the good done by such works as ON THE ROCK, CHANG FOO, OR ROSA GRAY?  Or, take D. R. Lucas’ PAUL DARST.  J. H. Stark has gained quite a reputation with his MARY ARDMORE and HUGH CARLIN.   One is written to describe the test of faith; the other the triumph of truth.  John Augustus Williams has produced a story of the lodge, the church and the school in ROSE EMERSON.  Many of the incident in this fine work were real, and can be recalled by elderly people, who dwelt in that section of Kentucky.   True, as I have said elsewhere, these books are not remarkable for artistic finish.  But who cares?  They are written in good, plain English, and–they have a nub to them.  Judge Schofield, in his ALTAR STAIRS, shows and ability to mass [59] his thought and still delineate character. . . . But here come the ladies, in a troop, urging their claims.  First, there is Mrs. Marie Butler, with her RIVERSIDE; then Margaret Frances, with ROSE CARLETON’S REWARD; Fannie Christopher, with DUKE CHRISTOPHER and BARTOLET MILON.  Mrs. M. M. B. Goodwin, who was busy year after year as a pioneer in this department, producing stories, sermons for children, poems, etc., etc.  Then there was Helen A. Rains, of sainted memory, and last Mrs. Jessie Brown Pounds, hymnist, poet and story-teller.  In the QUEEN’S GARDENS, a serial published in THE CHRISTIAN-EVANGELIST in November, 1902, Mrs. W. W. Wharton shows unusual strength, grace and outreach of thought.  We should hear more from such writers.  I have reserved for the last the children’s popular writer, J. Breckenridge Ellis, who, to my thinking, is developing more wonderfully and inexhaustibly than any of our romance writers.  There are good signs about.  Many young writers aree coming to the front, but who shall get there and stay?  All can not hope even to be read.  Frederick Harrison [60] well says, “To organize our knowledge, to systematize our reading, to save, out of the relentless cataract of ink, the immortal thoughts of the greatest–this is a necessity, unless the produtve ingenuity of man is to lead us at last to a measureless and pathless chaos.”  I should counsel, then, not to write until you have something worth saying.  Obtaining this point, say it–clearly, comprehensively, classically.  Then rest and feed the mind.  Don’t hurry into a new venture.  Fill the cask and you will have no trouble in empyting it through the bunghole.  This is so much wiser than beating on an empty barrel.

Next comes Winifred Ernest Garrison, “The Literature of the Disciples of Christ” Bulletin of the Disciples Divinity House of the University of Chicago April 1923. In what he acknowledged was an imperfect attempt, Dean Garrison provided the first scientific Disciples’ bibliography.  Absent of any editorialization, Garrison’s borrowed Monser’s categories, expanded them in some cases, and included a classified periodical list.  Garrison published the list knowing there were gaps (he “intentionally omitted: Sunday school lesson books, books distinctly for childrten, tracts, and pamphlets.   Hymn books are not included, but should be included in a revised list.”), sought advice for improvement not only in terms of content, but also arrangement.  In form he listed author, title and some publication data, noting where appropriate [*] those items held by Disciples Divinity House of the University of Chicago.  Also, he solicited gifts (what bibliographer wouldn’t?): “The library will be glad to receive copies especially of works which are out of print, and bound or unbound files of any of the early periodicals.”

Under “Religious Fiction” he listed these [pp. 13-14]:

D. R. Dungan: Chang Foo, a Chinaman in Search After Religious Truth (S., 1885). [Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati]

D. R. Dungan: On The Rock (1872. 33rd ed., S., 1900).

D. R. Dungan: Rosa Gray (S.).

D. R. Lucas: Paul Darst (C. P. Co.). [Christian Publishing Company, St. Louis]

W. T. Hacker: Hot for the Pastor (C. P. Co.).

J. B. Ellis: In the Days of Jehu (C. P. Co.).

J. B. Ellis: Shem, a Story of the Captivity (C. P. Co.).

Jessie B. Pounds: Young Man From Middlefield (C. P. Co.).

Jessie B. Pounds: Rachel Sylvester (S.).

Jessie B. Pounds: Norman McDonald (S.).

Jessie B. Pounds: The Iron-Clad Pledge (S.).

Jessie B. Pounds: A Popular Idol (S.).

C. J. Scofield: Alter Staris (C. P. Co.).

A. F. Smith: Ernest Leighton (C. B. Pub.) [Christian Board of Publication, St. Louis; successor to C.P.Co.]

J. H. Stark: Hugh Carlin (C. B. Pub.).

Mrs. M. N. Vanderwoort: Across the Gulf (C. B. Pub.).

J. A. Williams: Rosa Emerson (C. P. Co.).

B. A. Jenkins: The Princess Salome (Lippincott, 1921).

Hattie Cooley: An Honest Doubter (S.).


Hattie Cooley: As an Earthling (S.).

Mary A. Bayne: Blue Grass and Wattle (S.).

Mary A. Bayne: Crestland, a Centennial Story of Cane Ridge (S.).

M. A. Boteler: The Conversion of Brian O’Dillon (S.).

Abe Corey: Think Peace (S.).

Abe Corey: The Trail to the Hearts of Men (S.).

Edgar D. Jones: Fairhope, the Annals of a Country Church (Macmillan, 1917).

J. M. Rudy: Our Nation’s Peril (Chicago, 1918).*

A decade later Alfred Thomas DeGroot and Enos Everett Dowling published The Literature of the Disciples. Advance, Indiana: Hustler Print, 1933, a paperback volume of 78 pages based on, and an improvement upon, Garrison’s 1923 Bulletin and Degroot’s 1927 Butler tUniversity M.A. thesis title A Study in the Literature of the Disciples of Christ, available here.  They listed [pp. 54-55]:

Bayne, M. A. Crestland, A Centennial Story of Cane Ridge, 271, S. 1907

Boteler, M. M. The Conversion of Brian O’Dillon, 253, S. 1896

Boteler, M. M. Like as We Are, 225, S. 1903

Brown, J. T. *Bruce Norman, 215, Lou. 1901

Brown, W. H. The Call of Service, S. 1913

Burleigh, W. G. Uncle Tom’s Mansion, Grand Rapids, Mich. 1931

Cooley, H. As an Earthling, S. 1899

Cooley, H. An Honest Doubter, S. 1906

Cory, A. Think Peace, S. 1917

Cory, A. The Trail to the Hearets of Men, Revell

Dungan, D. R. *On the Rock, 340, S. 1872

Dungan, D. R. Chang Foo, S. 1885

Dungan, D. R. Rosa Gray, S. 1904

Ellis, J. B. King Saul, 281, C. P. Co. 1898

Ellis, J. B. Shem, a Story of the Captivity, 299, C. P. Co. 1900

Ellis, J. B. Adnah, 308, Phila. 1902

Ellis, Fran, Bobbs-Merrill 1912

Ellis, J. B.  The Woodneys New York 1914

Hacker, W. T. Hot for the Pastor, C. P. Co.

Hanes, A. *The Peril of Hunkey Hollow, 173, Parkersburg, W.Va. 1926

Jenkins, B. A. The Princess Salome, Phila. 1921

Jones, E. D. Fairhope, the Annals of a Country Church, Macmillan 1917

Kershner, B. L. The Head Hunter, 106, Macmillan 1917

Lucas, D. R. *Paul Darst, 206, Burns

Moody, R. N. Eunice Loyd

Pounds, J. B. Norman McDonald, S. 1887

Pounds, J. B. The Iron Clad Pledge, S. 1890

Pounds, J. B. A Popular Idol, S. 1890

Pounds, J. B. The Young Man from Middlefield, 257, C. P. Co. 1901

Pounds, J. B. Rachel Sylvester, S. 1905

Rudy, J. M. Our Nation’s Peril, Chicago 1918

Scofield, C. J. Altar Stairs, 320, C. C. 1903


Smith, A. F. Ernest Leighton, 336, C. P. Co. 1881

Stark, J. H. *Hugh Carlin, 185, C. B. Pub. 1986

Stark, J. H. *Mary Ardmore, 328, C. P. Co. 1898

Stark, J. H. Equally Yoked

Stark, J. H. Fair Maud

Stark, J. H. Baptism of Suffering

Vanderwoort, M. N. Across the Gulf, 268, C. P. Co. 1898

Williams, J. A. Rosa Emerson, C. P. Co.

Wright, H. B. That Printer of udell’s, Chicago 1903

Wright, H. B. The Calling of Dan Matthews, Chicago 1909

A little over decade later Claude Elbert Spencer completed his monumental An Author Catalog of Disciples of Christ and Related Religious Groups. Canton, Missouri: Disciples of Christ historical Society, 1946.  Spencer, a trained professional librarian, invested over twenty years to improve the form and content of all his predecessors.  He improved it to such a degree (his entries are listed alphabetically by author and contain as full a publication account as his sources–whatever they were–afforded) that only a page-by-page search might uncover more items, and even so, without the item at hand, there is only so much that Spencer can do for us when one is searching for any particular genre.

The items I list below belong in the Monser-DeGroot-Dowling taxonomy, but are not listed above.  They, too, are Restoration propaganda novels:

Ashley S. Johnson, The Great Controversy. A Biblical and Historical Search After the True Basis of Christian Union. Ogden Bros. & Co.: Knoxville, 1894.

Ashley S. Johnson, The Great Controversy. rev ed. M. D. Baumer. F. L. Rowe: Cincinnati, 1939.

John Allen Hudson, Peter Finwick. F. L. Rowe: Cincinnati, 1929.

Daniel Sommer, Rachel Reasoner: Or, A Scriptural Daughter, Wife and Mother. Daniel Sommer: Indianpapolis, 1900.

R. N. Moody, Eunice Loyd, Or the Struggle and Triumph of an Honest Heart. F. L. Rowe: Cincinnati, 1909.

E. M. Borden, The Foot of Mount Nebo. [Firm Foundation Publishing House: Austin?; see 1936 List of Preachers, p. 174]

E. M. Borden, The Crimson Trail

E. M. Borden, John’s Troubles

E. M. Borden, Tom’s Call to Preach


J. M. Sallee, Mabel Clement. The National Baptist Publishing House: Fulton, KY, 1903.  An anti-Campbellite propaganda novel!

I welcome additions, corrections and suggestions.

Mr. World and Miss Church Member: Katherine Sommer’s edition

A sub-set of my interest in RM bibliography is propaganda novels.  I admit it is down the list of my interests, but the whole genre is terrifically obscure…therefore the attraction.  Speaking of obscure, should any double-major in English and Theology feel up for the task, I think there is a thesis or dissertation here somewhere.  The basic plot line follows the honest truth-seeker who eventually finds enlightenment and along with it…if not coterminous to it…the essence of the ‘Restoration Plea’ (or some sort of moral lesson).  Clad in novel form, such documents advance Restoration principles before the reading public in a manner distinct from, but in content similar to, formal debates, doctrinal monographs or theological treatises.  The argument comes through the agonist’s experience: as the character finds her way, so too can the reader.  I’m working on a short list of RM propaganda novels, to be posted to this site on the 27th.

Mr. World and Miss Church Member is an interesting variation on this theme.  One, it is an allegory, and two, W. S. Harris has no Stone-Campbell ties.  William Shuler Harris appears to have been quite the character, and modestly prolific at that, as this entry on TomFolio details.  Henry Hain, the entry’s author, knows of three editions of Mr. World and Miss Church Member; this one, published by Katherine Way Sommer, is a new one for the list (hers is a printing of the 1902 Holzaphel 3rd edition).  If you’d like your own copy, go here to archive.org.   So why all this for an allegory whose author appears to have no Stone-Campbell connection?  The Sommer family published an edition of it.  Katherine Way Sommer, known to her readers as K. W. Sommer, published a major periodical voice among Churches of Christ in its day, Octographic Review, edited by her husband Daniel Sommer.  The Sommer family not only published but authored a propaganda novel or two themselves.  K. C. Ice more often than not inscribed his books with a signature and date of acquisition.  Alas, in this one he did not follow custom.  Included is a fly-away clipping from the 19 May 1903 Octographic Review containing praise for Mr. World by one John Harris from Indian Territory.

Mr. World and Miss Church-member front cover

Mr. World and Miss Church Member, K. W. Sommer edition title page

Mr. World and Miss Church Member, OR May 19, 1903 clipping 1

Mr. World and Miss Church Member, OR May 19, 1903 clipping 2

Mr. World and Miss Church Member, OR May 19, 1903 clipping 2 reverse

Farringer Bookplate

In August 2003 I purchased The New Living Pulpit of the Christian Church (1918) at the Ohio Bookstore in downtown Cincinnati.  R. B. Farringer owned the book at one time; here is his bookplate:

Farringer bookplate

I see from the 8 August 8 1947 The Miami Student that RBF was a student at Cincinnati Bible Seminary:

Church Of Christ
Calls Cincinnatian
For Pastorate
Mr. R. B. Farringer, Cincinnati
seminary student, assumed
the duties of the pastorate of the.
Church of Christ June 29, succeeding
Mr. Robert Smelser who
served until February of this
Mr. Farringer comes hom the
Church of Christ Mountain Mission
school at Grundy, Va. He has
beld pastorates at Pandora and
Miller City, Ohio, Churches of
His two elder children are also
enrolled as seminary students and
will assist him with the Oxford

J. W. Monser, The Literature of the Disciples (1906) available online

Tolle lege!


Here we have an early, if not the earliest, attempt at bibliography among Disciples.  DeGroot and Dowling build on Monser, add to his work and supersede him in 1933. In 1946 Claude Spencer wholly surpassed them all.

F. L. Rowe, Cincinnati Publisher

Two items from the 19 December 1911 edition of The Christian Leader and The Way.  The first is an ad for a new-to-me book: Etiquette and Hell.  Of my several research interests one constant is bibliography, specifically exhaustive lists of the publications of McQuiddy Printing/Gospel Advocate Publishing Company and F. L. Rowe/Christian Leader Corp.  Though I’ve paid more attention to McQuiddy and GA than Rowe, I have not pursued either systematically.  In any case this ad gives me a new entry for my list!

Next is a nice list of Rowe’s publications.  Special offer lists like these are a window into publishing, marketing and doctrine.  Look here to see what Rowe publishes and how he incentivizes subscriptions with books and bibles and tracts.  If you subscribe to a church paper you are already a reader; so why not add a book or two to your reading table alongside the Leader and Way?  Look here to see what Fred Rowe thinks should be on his reader’s tables.


Books for Sale At This Office

I find the comments about Campbell’s book on baptism enlightening: “The best work of A. Campbell and the most thorough investigation of the subject extant.” This is a significant evaluation.  I can only surmise that it represents Lipscomb and Sewell’s estimation of Campbell’s work.

I would love to find bound volumes of the 1866 Advocate for $3.00 apiece.

The Whartons in 1873 are members at Church Street Christian Church in Nashville, as is Mr. Dortch of Second National Bank.

Gospel Advocate, March 20, 1873, back cover.

Explorations in Stone-Campbell Bibliography, # 11: First Reads in Bibliography

I scheduled a draft version of this post to post automatically on 27 December.  It snuck up on me and there were a few incorrect details and a good chunk lacking.  I have corrected those errors.  I shouldn’t schedule things to post in the future…


No bibliography of Stone-Campbell material exists.

The closest thing is the combined card catalogs and online databases at several schools and institutions: DCHS, ACU’s Center for Restoration Studies and the Churches of Christ Heritage Center at Pepperdine, Harding University Graduate School of Religion Library, Christian Theological Seminary, Lipscomb University, Emmanuel School of Religion, Disciples Seminary Foundation, Bethany College Special Collections and Lexington Theological Seminary.  There are no doubt many Stone-Campbell items in other locations, but a combined catalog of the above will capture the majority of the stuff.

The first Curator of Disciples of Christ Historical Society, Claude Spencer (rest his soul), attempted to compile one.  His Author Catalog (1946) was built from the card catalog of the Henry Barton Robison Collection at Culver-Stockton College Library.  In other words, he started with what he had on the shelf…which wasn’t much at all.  From there he accomplished a monumental feat.  What he did with 3×5 cards and a sharp pencil, and a lot of miles traveled, can now be done with a few clicks of a mouse from your desktop.   He says this in the introduction:

This catalog grew out of necessity.  In 1924 the Library of Culver-Stockton College started a project to collect the literature produced by the religious groups which grew out of the reformation and restoration movements in the American religious scene in the early nineteenth century.  The project was handicapped from the start because of a lack of bibliographical tools which gave knowledge concerning the books and pamphlets that had been published.  The Literature of the Disciples of Christ, a study by J. W. Monser, 1906, and The Literature of the Disciples of Christ, by W. E. Garrison, 1922, were available but were far from comprehensive in scope and lacked the details necessary for use as a collecting and cataloguing guides. 

For several years the compiler worked on a want list, adding new titles as he found items in catalogs and periodicals; always making as complete an entry as possible for each title.  This want list combined with the catalog of books in the college library became the nucleus of An Author Catalog of Disciples of Christ and Related Religious Groups.  At first there was no intention to publish this listing as it was compiled  solely for use in the Henry Barton Robison Collection, the name by which the collectin of Disciples literature at Culver-Stockton was known.

The following libraries were visited during the preparation of the catalog: Bethany College, Butler University School of Religion, Christian Board of Publication, College of the Bible, The Disciples Divinity House, Drake University College of the Bible, The Gospel Advocate Company, The Kentucky Female Orphan Home, The Shepherd Library, The Standard Publishing Company, The United Christian Missionary Society, and The University of Chicago.

He arranged it alphabetically by author, giving place and date of birth and death where known.  He located the author with ‘c’ for Christian Church/Disciples and ‘cc’ for Churches of Christ so as to give us a basic orientation to the orbit in which the author moved.  For each author he listed “Separate titles, Analytics, Introductions, Joint works, Books edited and compiled, Joint editors and Books about” and followed standard library cataloging practice where his information allowed.

Spencer envisioned this project, which contains above 10,000 entries in 366 8.5 by 11 pages, to be the first step in a larger project…a union catalog of all known Stone-Campbell material.  Spencer envisioned all the material fully catalogued and cross-referenced according to the library or institution holding copies.  What Spencer was trying to do was to build a bibliographical skeleton upon which hundreds of years of research could be conducted with unprecedented ease and simplicity.  In the 1930’s much of what is now in libraries and archives was still in attics, basements and private collections.  And much of what is now known (thanks to Spencer) was then unknown.  If a name turns up in your reading you can ‘go to Spencer’ to see what, if anything, this person published…and there you go down a little research by-way.  Now you can go to WorldCat, but even so, I keep his Author Catalog within reach of my desk.  Spencer was a visionary with a heart for the researchers and scholars. 

But Spencer’s final check-list hasn’t materialized, and given this digital age we’re in, probably won’t and might not even be worth it to publish (I’d buy it, though!).  When Spencer passed in 1979 we lost the person who probably knew our literature the best.  Folks tell me Don Meredith and Don Haymes know Churches of Christ material like Claude knew the old Disciples stuff.  I’ve met both Don’s in person and we have corresponded by email.  They are indeed experts and their expertise has come, I’m sure, by spending years immersed in the material…handling it, reading it, cataloging it, noting variant printings and editions, and learing where such treasure comes to be stashed.  In this way they carry on in fine Spencerian tradition.

For the rest of us, we have to have some help in wading through the books.  Here’s my first attempt to bring together some of the places worth starting if you’re interested in Restoration literature.

Claude E. Spencer, An Author Catalog of Disciples of Christ and Related Religious Groups. Canton, MO: Disciples of Christ Historical Society, 1946.

Leslie R. Galbraith and Heather F. Day, The Disciples and American Culture, A Bibliography of Works by Disciples of Christ Members 1866-1984. ATLA Bibliography Series No. 26. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

There are a number of helpful resources for dissertations and periodicals which I will save for future posts.

These three surveys have helpful bibliographies:

Henry E. Webb, In Search of Christian Unity, A History of the Restoration Movement. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing Company, 1990.

M. Eugene Boring, Disciples and the Bible, A History of Disciples Biblical Interpretation in North America.  St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1997.

D. Duane Cummins, The Disciples, A Struggle for Reformation. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2009.

As always, comments, suggestions and corrections earnestly solicited and eagerly received.